Three-Phase Distribution Locational Marginal Pricing to Manage Unbalanced Variable Renewable Energy

This paper investigates three-phase, component-wise real and reactive distribution locational marginal pricing (DLMP). Through the use of case studies, mixtures of positive and negative, as well as real and reactive, DLMP components are explored in detail. A modified three-phase unbalanced 69-node PG&E system is used to demonstrate the validity of the three-phase real and reactive DLMP model. Results emphasize the importance of three-phase pricing schemes and reactive power pricing. The results also indicate the DLMP mechanism can potentially assist in balancing power across phases. DLMP can serve as an economic price signal to efficiently operate the system while minimizing losses, voltage violations, congestion, and imbalances across all phases.