A ±0.5-mV-Minimum-Input DC-DC Converter with Stepwise Adiabatic Gate-Drive and Efficient Timing Control for Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting
This paper presents a step-up DC-DC converter that uses a stepwise gate-drive technique to reduce the power FET gate-drive energy by 82%, allowing positive efficiency down to an input voltage of ±0.5 mV—the lowest input voltage ever achieved for a DC-DC converter as far as we know. Below ±0.5 mV the converter automatically hibernates, reducing quiescent power consumption to just 255 pW. The converter has an efficiency of 63% at ±1 mV and 84% at ±6 mV. The input impedance is programmable from 1 Ω to 600 Ω to achieve maximum power extraction. A novel delay line circuit controls the stepwise gate-drive timing, programmable input impedance, and hibernation behavior. Bipolar input voltage is supported by using a flyback converter topology with two secondary windings. A generated power good signal enables the load when the output voltage has charged above 2.7 V and disables when the output voltage has discharged below 2.5 V. The DC-DC converter was used in a thermoelectric energy harvesting system that effectively harvests energy from small indoor temperature fluctuations of less than 1°C. Also, an analytical model with unprecedented accuracy of the stepwise gate-drive energy is presented.
Email Address of Submitting Authore2@uw.edu
ORCID of Submitting Author0000-0001-7973-7264
Submitting Author's InstitutionUniversity of Washington
Submitting Author's CountryUnited States of America
Read the peer-reviewed publication
in IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers