A Convex Optimization Approach for the Design of Supergain Electrically Small Antenna and Rectenna Arrays Comprising Parasitic Reactively Loaded Elements
A convex optimization formulation is provided for antenna arrays comprising reactively loaded parasitic elements. The objective function consists of maximizing the array gain, while constraints on the admittance are provided in order to properly account for reactive loads. Topologies with two and three electrically small dipole arrays comprising one fed element and one or two parasitic elements respectively are considered and the conditions for obtaining supergain are investigated. The admittance constraints are formulated as linear constraints for specific cases as well as more general, quadratic constraints, which lead to the solution of an equivalent convex relaxation formulation. A design example for an electrically small superdirective rectenna is provided where an upper bound for the rectifier efficiency is simulated.