# A New Perspective: Electromagnetic Theory is the Fundamental Foundation for all Mechanical Principles of Newton's Laws

The basic principles of Newton’s laws, and related concepts of momentum and energy and their conservation, are derived from the electromagnetic theory. The electric and magnetic fields produced by an electric charge in uniform motion, as derived from Maxwell’s equations, are used to find the forces the charge would exert on another charge, as measured in two inertial frames. These force transformation relations in the two frames are extended to apply to any general physical problem involving force. The force transformation relations are then used, together with the space-time relations of special relativity, to derive Newton’s laws of motion applicable for velocity much smaller than the speed of light c(v << c), as well as to derive general expressions for mass, momentum and energy, applicable for any velocity v≤c. Further, the momentum or energy as expressed in one inertial frame, are linearly related to the momentum and the energy expressed in another inertial frame. This result, when applied to a closed system with no external interaction, proves the momentum and the energy to be conserved, based on the required force-transformation relations. Fundamental and philosophical implications of the results and derivations are discussed. The basic principles of invariant electric and magnetic charge, upon which all electromagnetic concepts of Maxwell’s equations are founded, are recognized to be complete, general and the fundamental origin of Newton’s laws, making mechanical or material principles theoretically secondary.

## History

## Email Address of Submitting Author

nkd217@nyu.edu## ORCID of Submitting Author

0000-0001-8004-0413## Submitting Author's Institution

New York University## Submitting Author's Country

- United States of America