Accurate Direction-of-Arrival Estimation Method based on Space-Time Modulated Metasurface
preprintposted on 2022-05-17, 18:20 authored by Mengmeng LiMengmeng Li
In this paper, we present a metasurface-based Direction of Arrival (DoA) estimation method that exploits the properties of space-time modulated reflecting metasurfaces to estimate in real-time the impinging angle of an illuminating monochromatic plane wave. The approach makes use of the amplitude unbalance of the received fields at broadside at the frequencies of the two first-order harmonics generated by the interaction between the incident plane wave and the modulated metasurface. Here, we first describe analytically how to generate the desired higher-order harmonics in the reflected spectrum and how to realize the breaking of the spatial symmetry of each order harmonic scattering pattern. Then, the one dimensional (1D) omnidirectional incident angle can be analytically computed using +1st and -1st order harmonics. The approach is also extended to 2D DoA estimation by using two orthogonally arranged 1D DoA modulation arrays. The accuracy of 1D DoA estimation is verified through full-wave numerical simulations. Compared to conventional DoA estimation methods, the proposed approach simplifies the computation and hardware complexity, ensuring at the same time estimation accuracy. The proposed method may have potential applications in wireless communications, target recognition, and identification.