An Expedient, Generalizable and Realistic Data-Driven Indoor Propagation Model
preprintposted on 22.12.2021, 08:06 by Stefanos BakirtzisStefanos Bakirtzis, Jiming Chen, Kehai Qiu, Jie ZhangJie Zhang, Ian Wassell
Efficient and realistic indoor radio propagation modelling tools are inextricably intertwined with the design and operation of next generation wireless networks. Machine learning (ML)-based radio propagation models can be trained with simulated or real-world data to provide accurate estimates of the wireless channel characteristics in a computationally efficient way. However, most of the existing research on ML-based propagation models focuses on outdoor propagation modelling, while indoor data-driven propagation models remain site-specific with limited scalability. In this paper we present an efficient and credible ML-based radio propagation modelling framework for indoor environments. Specifically, we demonstrate how a convolutional encoder-decoder can be trained to replicate the results of a ray-tracer, by encoding physics-based information of an indoor environment, such as the permittivity of the walls, and decode it as the path-loss (PL) heatmap for an environment of interest. Our model is trained over multiple indoor geometries and frequency bands, and it can eventually predict the PL for unknown indoor geometries and frequency bands within a few milliseconds. Additionally, we illustrate how the concept of transfer learning can be leveraged to calibrate our model by adjusting its pre-estimate weights, allowing it to make predictions that are consistent with measurement data.