Analytical Model Nonequilibrium Inhomogeneous Plasma of the Heliosphere
preprintposted on 2021-12-13, 01:04 authored by Philipp VysikayloPhilipp Vysikaylo
We prove that a nonequilibrium inhomogeneous giant gas discharge is realized in the heliosphere with huge values of the parameter E/N, which determines the temperature of electrons. This quasi-stationary discharge determines the main parameters of the weak solar wind (SW) in the heliosphere. In connection with the development of space technologies and the human spacewalk, the problem of the nature of the SW is acute. The study of the interference of gravitational and electrical potentials at the Earth's surface began with the work of Hilbert 1600. Such polarization effects – the interference of Coulomb and gravitational forces – have not been studied well enough even in the heliosphere. Our article is devoted to this problem. Pannekoek-Rosseland-Eddington model do not take into account the important role of highly energetic running (away from the Sun) electrons and, accordingly, the duality of electron fluxes. According to an alternative model formulated by we, highly energetic (escaping from the Sun) electrons leave the Sun and the heliosphere, and weakly energetic ones, unable to leave the Coulomb potential well (hole) – the positively charged Sun and the heliosphere, return to the Sun. The weak difference between the opposite currents of highly energetic (escaping from the Sun) electrons and weakly energetic (returning to the Sun) electrons is compensated by the current of positive ions and protons from the Sun – SW. These dynamic processes maintain a quasi-constant effective dynamic charge of the Sun and the entire heliosphere. At the same time, quasi-neutrality in the Sun and heliosphere is well performed up to 10-36. According to experiments and analytical calculations based on our model: 1) the plasma in the corona is nonequilibrium; 2) the maximum electron temperature is Te ~ 1-2 million degrees; 3) Te grows from 1000 km away from the Sun and 4) the role of highly energetic electrons escaping from the plasma leads to a significant increase in the effective: solar charge and electric fields in the heliosphere in relation to the Pannekoek-Rosseland-Eddington model. This is due to the absence of a compensation layer that screens the effective charge of the Sun. It is not formed at all due to the escape of highly energetic electrons (as in a conventional gas discharge) in the entire heliosphere with high temperatures exceeding the temperature of the Sun's surface. Thus, the process of escape of highly energetic electrons forms the internal EMF of the entire heliosphere. Interference of gravitational and Coulomb potentials in the entire heliosphere is considered, it is being manifested in generation of two opposite flows of particles: 1) that are neutral or with a small charge (to the Sun), and 2) in the form of high-energy electrons (escaping from the positively charged Sun) and a solar wind (from the Sun). Calculated values of the registered ion parameters in the solar wind were compared with experimental observations. Reasons for generating the ring current in inhomogeneous heliosphere and inapplicability of the Debye theory in describing processes in the solar wind (plasma with current) are considered.