Anchor-Free Localization Using a Deep Neural Network in Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Sinks
preprintposted on 09.08.2021, 10:06 authored by Arunanshu MahapatroArunanshu Mahapatro, V CH Sekhar Rao Rayavarapu
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is one of the vital part of the Internet of Things (IoT) that allow to acquire and provide information from interconnected sensors. Localization-based services are among the most appealing applications associated to the IoT. The deployment of WSNs in the indoor environments and urban areas creates obstacles that lead to the Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS) propagation. Additionally, the localization accuracy is minimized by the NLOS propagation. The main intention of this paper is to develop an anchor-free node localization approach in multi-sink WSN under NLOS conditions using three key phases such as LOS/NLOS channel classification, range estimation, and anchor-free node localization. The first phase adopts Heuristicbased Deep Neural Network (H-DNN) for LOS/NLOS channel classification. Further, the same H-DNN s used for the range estimation. The hidden neurons of DNN are optimized using the proposed Adaptive Separating Operator-based Elephant Herding Optimization (ASO-EHO) algorithm. The node localization is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem. The objectives such as localization error, hardware cost, and energy overhead are taken into consideration. ASO-EHO is used for node localization. The suitability of the proposed anchor-free node localization model is validated by comparing over the existing models with diverse counts of nodes.