Characteristic Mode Design of Dual-Band Multistate Tunable Absorber Based on Programmable Flexible Metasurface
Theory of characteristic modes (TCM) is applied to the design of a programmable flexible metasurface (PFMS) to achieve its multistate tunable microwave absorption. The designed metasurface consists of two layers. The first layer is a very thin polyimide (PI), on which unit cells consisting of two trapezoidal patches symmetrical along the central bias microstrip are printed. The second layer is grounded polyvinyl chloride (PVC) substrate to maintain the flexibility of the designed structure. The TCM is used to analyze and understand the modal behavior of the unit cell, which provides clear underlying electromagnetic (EM) physics to guide us how to load positive-intrinsic-negative (PIN) diode as a tunable resistance to achieve variable absorption states. The designed PFMS absorber have been fabricated and experimentally verified on the flat and cylindrical foams, respectively. Good agreements can be found for both planar and cylindrical metasurface structures between full-wave simulations and measurements. Less than -10 dB reflectivity is achieved from 3.6 to 10.7 GHz (99%). The mimicry of time-varying scattering cross section (SCS) is further realized through real-time coding PFMS absorber, which can be precisely tuned from -30 dB to 0 dB with a step of 1.5 dB at 5.5 GHz and 10.4 GHz, respectively.