Common-Mode Frequency in Inverter-Penetrated Power Systems: Definition, Analysis, and Quantitative Evaluation
As synchronous generators (SGs) are extensively replaced by inverter-based generators (IBGs), modern power systems are facing complicated frequency stability problems. Conventionally, the frequency nadir and the rate of change of frequency (RoCoF) are the two main factors concerned by power system operators. However, these two factors heavily rely on simulations or experiments, especially in a power system with high-penetration IBGs, which offer limited theoretical insight into how the frequency response characteristics are affected by the devices. This paper aims at filling this gap. Firstly, we derive a formulation of the global frequency for an IBG-penetrated power system, referred to as common-mode frequency (CMF). The derived CMF is demonstrated to be more accurate than existing frequency definitions, e.g., the average system frequency (ASF). Then, a unified transfer function structure (UTFS) is proposed to approximate the frequency responses of different types of devices by focusing on three key parameters, which dramatically reduces the complexity of frequency analysis. On this basis, we introduce two evaluation indices, i.e., frequency drop depth coefficient (FDDC) and frequency drop slope coefficient (FDSC), to theoretically quantify the frequency nadir and the average RoCoF, respectively. Instead of relying on simulations or experiments, our method rigorously links the system’s frequency characteristics to the characteristics of heterogeneous devices, which enables an in-depth understanding regarding how devices affect the system frequency. Finally, the proposed indices are verified through simulations on a modified IEEE 39-bus test system.