Conceptualization of Blockchain Enabled Interconnected Smart Microgrids
Power systems are undergoing rapid transitions to incorporate renewable sources of generation and to combat climate change. Next stage of transitions will lead to a shift from large-scale, centralized systems to networks of smallsized, distributed electricity systems which require distributed or decentralized ledgers for database management for efficient transactions. Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) are a form of decentralized ledgers where the transactions (energy, information and money) among various entities are maintained. One such DLT is blockchain technology which offers several advantages. Data recorded in blockchains are difficult to tamper with; have privacy protection; facilitate fast, accurate and real-time settlement of financial transactions. Contemporary research has started focusing on their possible applications in energy systems. State-of-the-art suggests that while business and market aspects have been extensively discussed, the electrical constraints and implementation methodologies have not been adequately addressed. Furthermore, all the reviewed projects have implemented only peer-to-peer transactions that are not scalable. To incorporate the new entities like prosumers, intermicrogrid transactions and interactions with the legacy power grid, new structural and operational frameworks are necessary. The proposed research explores the possibility of developing blockchain enabled smart microgrids (BSMG) with the above frameworks. It aims to build a conceptual framework of BSMG, including the transaction protocols and process flows. It proposes inclusion of network constraints in a three-levelled transaction setup which is executed over a four-layered architecture. Another practical challenge is that BSMGs may be set up on different blockchain platforms. Hence, this paper also proposes implementing Inter-Blockchain Protocol for the first time to include interoperability and communication between different platforms. Finally the performance metrics that will be used to validate the BSMGs are outlined.
Email Address of Submitting Authordishald11@gmail.com
ORCID of Submitting Author0000-0003-2813-6148
Submitting Author's InstitutionIndian Institute of Science
Submitting Author's Country