Design of Combined Stationary and Mobile Battery Energy Storage Systems
To minimize the curtailment of renewable generation and incentivize grid-scale energy storage deployment, a concept of combining stationary and mobile applications of battery energy storage systems built within renewable energy farms is proposed. A simulation-based optimization model is developed to obtain the optimal design parameters such as battery capacity and power ratings by solving a multi-objective optimization problem that aims to maximize the economic profitability, the energy provided for transportation electrification, the demand peak shaving, and the renewable energy utilized. Two applications considered for the stationary energy storage systems are the end-consumer arbitrage and frequency regulation, while the mobile application envisions a scenario of a grid-independent battery-powered electric vehicle charging station network. The charging stations receive supplies from the energy storage system that absorbs renewable energy, contributing to a sustained DC demand that helps with revenues. Representative results are presented for two operation modes and different sets of weights assigned to the objectives. Substantial improvement in the profitability of combined applications over single stationary applications is shown. Pareto frontier of a reduced dimensional problem is obtained to show the trade-off between design objectives. This work could pave the road for future implementations of the new form of energy storage systems.