Development and validation of comprehensive closed formulas for atmospheric delay and altimetry correction in ground-based GNSS-R
Radio wave propagation involved in Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R) is subject to atmospheric refraction. Even for ground-based tracking stations, in applications such as coastal sea-level altimetry, the interferometric or reflection-minus-direct effect might be significant. Although atmospheric propagation delays are best investigated numerically via raytracing, including reflections, such a procedure is not trivial. We have developed simpler closed formulas to account for atmospheric refraction in ground-based GNSS-R, validated against independent raytracing. We provide specific expressions for the two components of the atmospheric interferometric delay and corresponding altimetry correction components, parameterized in terms of refractivity and bending angle. Assessment results showed excellent agreement for both components. We define the interferometric slant factor used to map interferometric zenithal delays to individual satellites.
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ORCID of Submitting Author0000-0003-1817-6015
Submitting Author's InstitutionUniversity of New Brunswick
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