Fabrication techniques for the integration of 2D materials
With compact footprint, low energy consumption, high scalability, and mass producibility, chip-scale integrated devices are an indispensable part of modern technological change and development. Recent advances in two-dimensional (2D) layered materials with their unique structures and distinctive properties have motivated their on-chip integration, yielding a variety of functional devices with superior performance and new features. To realize integrated devices incorporating 2D materials, it requires a diverse range of device fabrication techniques, which are of fundamental importance to achieve good performance and high reproducibility. This paper reviews the state-of-art fabrication techniques for the on-chip integration of 2D materials. First, an overview of the material properties and on-chip applications of 2D materials is provided. Second, different approaches used for integrating 2D materials on chips are comprehensively reviewed, which are categorized into material synthesis, on-chip transfer, film patterning, and property tuning / modification. Third, the methods for integrating 2D van der Waals heterostructures are also discussed and summarized. Finally, the current challenges and future perspectives are highlighted.