Graphene and related 2D materials for desalination : A review of recent patents
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The growing population and energy demand, coupled with the depleting fresh water resources has resulted in great progress in sea water desalination (SWD) technologies. Nanopores of 2D materials like graphene and its structural analogs are the latest innovations in membrane technology for SWD. The performance of these novel atomically thin nanopores as seen from various experimental and theoretical studies is highly encouraging with reports of water permeability 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the conventional reverse osmosis (RO). The potential for high efficiency and the low energy requirements of these nanopores for desalination has led to tremendous efforts in fabrication and commercialization. We present here a review of the very recent patents associated with the preparation of these nanopores, the process and the efficiency of SWD.