Growing, Tracking, and Directing Bone Marrow Derived Stem Cells From Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Microenvironments
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Bone marrow derived stem cells express biomarkers capable of facilitating adhesion to the cell culturing microenvironment, thereby, influencing their proliferation, migration, and differentiation. In particular, biological biomarkers of mesenchymal stem cells include, but are not limited to, CD14-, CD19-, CD34-, CD45-, CD29, CD44, CD73+, CD90+, CD105+, CD106, CD166, Stro-1, and HLADR. The relationship between the stem cell biology and the materials and methods forming a cell culturing microenvironment serves as a critical aspect in the successful adhesion and growth within two-dimensional cell culture microenvironments such as polystyrene, laminin, fibronectin, or poly-L-lysine and within three-dimensional cell culture microenvironments such as hydrogel, ceramic, collagen, polymer based nanofibers, agitation, forced floating, and hang drop systems. Further, electrical stimulation of the stem cells may be implemented during the cell culturing process to measure stem cell growth and to determine stem cell viability. In addition, electrical stimulation of implanted stem cells may facilitate tracking by measuring stem cell migration distance and travel area. Although many biochemical and inflammatory biomarkers are expressed based on severity in stroke including, but not limited to, Interluken-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and glutamate (Glu), current methodologies of stem cell directing lack localization and biological effector specificity. Biological effector bound magnetic particle stem cells may serve as a potential treatment method in ischemic stroke. In particular, a stem cell biomarker may be configured to communicate with inflammatory biomarkers, thus, more efficiently delivering the stem cells to site specific areas having the most severely affected in-vivo biochemical microenvironments.