Impact of Predictive Battery Thermal Management for a 48V Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Overheating of battery packs in electrified vehicles is detrimental to their lifetime and performance. Unfortunately, designing a control strategy that ensures battery protection without jeopardizing fuel economy is not a straightforward task.
In this paper, we investigate battery temperature-sensitive optimal energy management for a 48V mild-hybrid electric vehicle to prevent overheating with minimal fuel consumption increase. Indeed, this family of hybrid architectures is challenging due to the absence of an active cooling system.
In particular, we modeled a p0 parallel-hybrid with a 48V battery pack and we employed dynamic programming to numerically investigate the fuel economy capability while tracking the battery pack temperature.
First, we tuned a battery current-constrained powertrain control strategy in order to avoid battery overheating, which could be easily implemented on-board. Then, we implemented a predictive temperature-constrained strategy that exploits the a priori knowledge of driving conditions and temperature constraints to maximize fuel economy.
Results show that both strategies are able to meet the battery temperature constraints, although the predictive temperature-constrained control strategy outperforms the current-constrained strategy in terms of fuel economy. This case study demonstrates the theoretical benefits of a predictive battery thermal management for 48V mild hybrids.