Improving Uncertainty-Error Correspondence in Deep Bayesian Medical Image Segmentation
Increased usage of automated tools like deep learning in medical image segmentation has alleviated the bottleneck of manual contouring. This has shifted manual labour to quality assessment (QA) of automated contours which involves detecting errors and correcting them. A potential solution to semi-automated QA is to use deep Bayesian uncertainty to recommend potentially erroneous regions, thus reducing time spent on error detection. Previous work has investigated the correspondence between uncertainty and error, however, no work has been done on improving the “utility” of Bayesian uncertainty maps such that it is only present in inaccurate regions and not in the accurate ones. Our work trains the FlipOut model with the Accuracy-vsUncertainty (AvU) loss which promotes uncertainty to be present only in inaccurate regions. We apply this method on datasets of two radiotherapy body sites, namely CT scans of head and neck and prostate MRs. Uncertainty heatmaps (i.e. predictive entropy) are evaluated using ROC and Precision-Recall curves. Numerical results show that when compared to the Bayesian baseline the proposed method successfully suppresses uncertainty for accurate voxels, with similar presence of uncertainty for inaccurate voxels.
Code to reproduce experiments is available on https://github.com/prerakmody/ bayesuncertainty-error-correspondence.
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Submitting Author's InstitutionLeiden University Medical Center
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