Insole Systems for Disease Diagnosis and Rehabilitation
preprintposted on 2022-02-23, 08:32 authored by Shuo GaoShuo Gao, Zhiyuan Zhang, Jiamu Wang, Zhenyu Xu, Nicolas Grimaldi, Mufan Zhao, Ruilin Pang, Yueming Sun, Yanning DaiYanning Dai, Hu Boyi
Neurological and orthopedic chronic diseases are proven to numerous complications and related dysfunction for patients, and are leading factors of death and disability. Conventional methods of diagnosis and rehabilitation are conducted at hospitals. However, due to the aging society and controversial privacy protection, traditional methods implemented in medical institutions have faced numerous challenges. Hence, internet of healthcare things (IoHT) based techniques have recently begun to be implemented. In order to provide flexible utilization and secure privacy for patients, wearable devices, like whole body devices based on electromyography (EMG) and radio frequency identification (RFID) insole systems, based on gait-analysis were applied. Among these techniques, insole systems for medical analysis are more suitable, because the root cause of neurologic and orthopedic chronic diseases are directly related to several gait characteristics. Neurologic and orthopedic chronic diseases are caused by lesions of the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nerves (PN) and orthopedic limbs, similarly gait features are comprehensive results generated by the coordination of CNS, PN and lower limbs However, owing to lack of standards for instrumentation and the knowledge gap between engineering and pathogenic mechanism, the medical application of insole systems and the development of IoHT are hindered. This article is presented to address these issues. In this context, five plantar sensing mechanisms and their related products will be overviewed. Next, pathogenic mechanisms and pathological gait features of six representative chronic neurologic diseases will be displayed. Likewise, the development of corresponding insole systems for supervision and recovery for these diseases will be reviewed as well. Finally, challenges and future trends for current work will be discussed. This article will not only provide guidelines for the design of insole systems targeted for specific diseases but will also inspire the innovation of novel ideas.