KCB-Net: A 3D Knee Cartilage and Bone Segmentation Network via Sparse Annotation
preprintposted on 2021-09-16, 05:20 authored by Yaopeng PengYaopeng Peng, Hao Zheng, Fahim Zaman, Lichun ZhangLichun Zhang, Xiaodong Wu, Milan Sonka, Danny Chen
Knee cartilage and bone segmentation is critical for physicians to analyze and diagnose articular damage and knee osteoarthritis (OA). Deep learning (DL) methods for medical image segmentation have largely outperformed traditional methods, but they often need large amounts of annotated data for model training, which is very costly and time-consuming for medical experts, especially on 3D images. In this paper, we report a new knee cartilage and bone segmentation framework, KCB-Net, for 3D MR images based on sparse annotation. KCB-Net selects a small subset of slices from 3D images for annotation, and seeks to bridge the performance gap between sparse annotation and full annotation. Specifically, it first identifies a subset of the most effective and representative slices with an unsupervised scheme; it then trains an ensemble model using the annotated slices; next, it self-trains the model using 3D images containing pseudo-labels generated by the ensemble method and improved by a bi-directional hierarchical earth mover’s distance (bi-HEMD) algorithm; finally, it fine-tunes the segmentation results using the primal-dual Internal Point Method (IPM). Experiments on two 3D MR knee joint datasets (the Iowa dataset and iMorphics dataset) show that our new framework outperforms state-of-the-art methods on full annotation, and yields high quality results even for annotation ratios as low as 5%.