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Link-Layer Retransmission-based Error-Control Protocols in FSO Communications: A Survey

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posted on 2021-12-16, 04:25 authored by Hoang LeHoang Le
Free-space optical (FSO) communications have gained significant interest over the last few years, thanks to the capability to transport extremely high-speed data over long distances without exhausting radio frequency (RF) resources. FSO communication is widely considered in various network scenarios, such as inter-satellite/deep-space links, ground-station/vehicles, satellite/aerial links, or terrestrial links. It is expected to be a key enabling technology for the next generation of 6G wireless networks. Nevertheless, despite the great potential of FSO communications, its performance suffers from various limitations and challenges: atmospheric turbulence, clouds, weather conditions, and pointing misalignment. The error-control solutions, including physical layer (PHY) and link-layer methods, aim to mitigate the transmission errors caused by such adverse issues. While the existing surveys on error-control solutions in FSO systems primarily focussed on the PHY methods, we instead provide a review of link-layer solutions. In particular, we conduct an extensive literature survey of state-of-the-art retransmission protocols, both automatic repeat request (ARQ) and hybrid ARQ (HARQ), for various FSO communication scenarios, including point-to-point terrestrial, cooperative, multi-hop relaying, hybrid FSO/RF, satellite/aerial, and deep-space systems. Furthermore, we provide a survey of recent literature and insightful discussion on the cross-layer design frameworks related to link-layer retransmission protocols in FSO communication networks. Finally, the lessons learned, design guidelines, related open issues, and future research directions are exposed.


Email Address of Submitting Author

Submitting Author's Institution

The University of Aizu

Submitting Author's Country

  • Japan