Modulation Ranges of Different Sensations for Coding Electrically Evoked Tactile Sensory Feedback
preprintposted on 2021-05-30, 09:16 authored by Jie Zhang, Manzhao Hao, Fei Yang, Wenyuan Liang, Sheng Bi, Chih-hong Chou, Ning LanNing Lan
The ability to perceive prosthetic grasping may enable amputees to better interact with external objects. This may require customized coding of multiple sensory feedback for each amputee. This study developed a protocol to determine optimal modulation ranges of sensations elicited by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). These sensations that were referred to the lost fingers provided the possibility for restoring multi-modalities of sensory feedback for amputees with evoked tactile sensation (ETS) non-invasively. To match the restricted projected finger map area, smaller electrodes must be used to deliver electrical stimulation for multi-channel sensory information, which resulted in fewer types of sensations. Our protocol provided comprehensive information for optimal selection of amplitude and frequency in a personalized, pulse-width encoding paradigm. The good sensitivity for vibration and buzz in both able-bodied and amputee subjects suggested that perceptual intensity can be effectively modulated to convey sensory information via either of the sensations. The efficacy of this protocol in sensory coding for forearm amputees was demonstrated in finger-specific identification experiment. This protocol may allow customization of ETS-based sensory feedback with an optimal encoding strategy for individual amputees.