Vehicle Crash Mitigation Strategy in Unavoidable Collision Scenarios: Focusing on Motion Planning by Considering a Generalized Crash Severity Model
Driving strategy in dynamic environment is crucial to the automated vehicle safety. In extremely emergency scenarios with unavoidable collision (UC), especially those with complex impact patterns, the potential crash risk should be well considered. This paper proposes a crash mitigation (CM) algorithm for UCs, which directly embeds a generalized crash severity index (CSI) model to vehicle-to-vehicle collisions of multiple impact patterns. The idea is that during the short time before a collision, the vehicle will actively adapt its position and poses to minimize the potential crash severity level after the collision. To this end, the generalized CSI model is introduced to estimate the potential crash severity of all sample paths, from which a crash-severity-optimal trajectory is obtained. To improve the inferring time efficiency of the planning module, a neural network is constructed and deployed to approximate the nonlinear severity model. The proposed algorithm is first validated through simulations of UC scenarios, including entry ramp merging, intersection crossing and downhill/uphill crossing. Then for the intersection crossing scenario, the algorithm is deployed to a real car and validated through digital-twin experiments. Results show that by combining the braking and steering interventions for better crash severity reduction, the proposed strategy can achieve better mitigation effects than commonly-used collision avoidance (CA) strategies. This reveals that a new mindset of comprehensive safety strategy should not focus only on CA, but also the last resort of CM if collision is unavoidable. Our work may contribute as a promising solution to the safety problem in emergency scenarios.
Department of Science and Technology of Zhejiang (Proposal No. 2022C01241)
Email Address of Submitting Authordfli@zju.edu.cn
ORCID of Submitting Author0000-0002-6909-0169
Submitting Author's InstitutionZhejiang University
Submitting Author's Country