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Optimal Hub Placement and Deadlock-Free Routing for Payment Channel Network Scalability

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posted on 2023-06-07, 03:39 authored by Lingxiao YangLingxiao Yang, Xuewen Dong, Sheng Gao, Qiang Qu, Xiaodong Zhang, Wensheng Tian, Yulong Shen

As a promising implementation model of payment channel network (PCN), payment channel hub (PCH) could achieve high throughput by providing stable off-chain transactions through powerful hubs. However, existing PCH schemes assume hubs preplaced in advance, not considering payment requests' distribution and may affect network scalability, especially network load balancing. In addition, current source routing protocols with PCH allow each sender to make routing decision on his/her own request, which may have a bad effect on performance scalability (e.g., deadlock) for not considering other senders' requests. This paper proposes a novel multi-PCHs solution with high scalability. First, we are the first to study the PCH placement problem and propose optimal/approximation solutions with load balancing for small-scale and large-scale scenarios, by trading off communication costs among participants and turning the original NP-hard problem into a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) problem solving by supermodular techniques. Then, on global network states and local directly connected clients' requests, a routing protocol is designed for each PCH with a dynamic adjustment strategy on request processing rates, enabling high-performance deadlock-free routing. Extensive experiments show that our work can effectively balance the network load, and improve the performance on throughput by 29.3% on average compared with state-of-the-arts. 


This work was supported in part by National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2020YFB1005500); the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61972310, 61972017, 62072487, 61941114); the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No. M21036); the Populus Euphratica Found, China (No. CCFHuaweiBC2021008); the Innovation Fund of Xidian University, China (No. YJSJ23005).


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Xidian University

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  • China

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