PriFoB: a Privacy-aware Fog-enhanced Blockchain-based system for Global Accreditation and Credential Verification
preprintposted on 19.01.2022, 23:13 authored by Hamza BaniataHamza Baniata, Attila Kertesz
Trusted online credential management solutions are needed for instant and practical verification. Most of the available frameworks targeting this field violate the privacy of end-users or lack sufficient solutions in terms of security and Quality-of-Service (QoS). In this paper, we propose a Privacy-aware Fog-enhanced Blockchain-based online credential solution, namely PriFoB. Our proposed solution adopts a public permissioned Blockchain model with different reliable encryption schemes, standardized Zero-Knowledge-Proofs (ZKPs) and Digital Signatures (DS) within a Fog-Blockchain integrated framework, which is also GDPR compliant. We deploy both the Proof-of-Authority (PoA) and the Signatures-of-Work (SoW) consensus algorithms for efficient and secure handling of Verifiable Credentials (VCs) and global accreditation of VC issuers, respectively. Furthermore, we propose a novel three-dimensional DAG-based model of the Distributed Ledger (3DDL) and provide ready-to-deploy PriFoB implementation. We discuss insights regarding the utilization and the potential of PriFoB, and evaluate it in terms of security, privacy, latency, throughput and power utilization. We analyze its performance in different layers of Fog-enabled cloud architecture with simulation and emulation, and we show that PriFoB outperforms several Blockchain-based solutions utilizing Ethereum, Hyperledger Fabric, Hyperledger Besu and Hyperledger Indy platforms.