Review and Comparison of Grid-Tied Inverter Controllers in Microgrids
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Grid-tied inverters are widely used for interfacing renewable energy sources or storage devices to low-voltage electrical power distribution systems. Lately, a number of different control techniques have been proposed to address the emerging requirements of the smart power system scenario, in terms of both functionalities and performance. This paper reviews the techniques proposed for the implementation of current-controlled or voltage-controlled inverters in microgrids. By referring to a voltage source inverter with LCL output filter, the different control architectures are classified as single-, double-, and triple- loop. Then, the functionalities that are needed or recommended in the grid-connected, islanded, and autonomous operating modes of the grid-tied inverter are identified and their implementation in the different control structures is discussed. To validate the analysis and to better illustrate the merits and limitations of the most effective solutions, six control strategies are finally implemented and experimentally compared on a single-phase, grid-connected inverter setup.