Zero-effort Continuous Two-factor Authentication.pdf (2.1 MB)

Zero-effort Continuous Two-factor Authentication

Download (2.1 MB)
posted on 2023-02-01, 04:41 authored by Ali Abdullah S. AlQahtaniAli Abdullah S. AlQahtani, Jean Gourd

Traditional two-factor authentication (2FA) systems often require users to enter a code or use a physical token, which can be inconvenient or inconvenient. In this paper, we propose a novel zero-effort 2FA system that utilizes the characteristics of ambient access points (APs) visible to users’ devices to authenticate them without requiring user interaction. The proposed system is flexible and adaptable, allowing for the adjustment of various parameters such as the range of acceptable distances between the user’s devices and the minimum number of APs required for authentication. It is also robust, with features to handle situations where there may be a lack of APs in the user’s environment or the user does not have access to their mobile device. Additionally, the proposed system takes user privacy into consideration by limiting the storage of sensitive information and purging data related to a user’s session after it is complete. The proposed system is a secure and user-friendly solution for 2FA that can be easily implemented in various settings. Finally, the proposed system was tested and evaluated, and the results showed that it is effective in authenticating users while maintaining a high level of security.


Email Address of Submitting Author

ORCID of Submitting Author


Submitting Author's Institution

North Carolina A&T State University

Submitting Author's Country

  • United States of America