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Finding COVID-19 from Chest X-rays using Deep Learning on a Small Dataset
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  • Lawrence Hall ,
  • Dmitry Goldgof ,
  • Rahul Paul ,
  • Gregory M. Goldgof
Lawrence Hall
University of South Florida, University of South Florida, University of South Florida, University of South Florida

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Dmitry Goldgof
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Rahul Paul
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Gregory M. Goldgof
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Testing for COVID-19 has been unable to keep up with the demand. Further, the false negative rate is projected to be as high as 30% and test results can take some time to obtain. X-ray machines are widely available and provide images for diagnosis quickly. This paper explores how useful chest X-ray images can be in diagnosing COVID-19 disease. We have obtained 122 chest X-rays of COVID-19 and over 4,000 chest X-rays of viral and bacterial pneumonia. A pre-trained deep convolutional neural network has been tuned on 102 COVID-19 cases and 102 other pneumonia cases in a 10-fold cross validation. The results were all 102 COVID-19 cases were correctly classified and there were 8 false positives resulting in an AUC of 0.997. On a test set of 20 unseen COVID-19 cases all were correctly classified and more than 95% of 4,171 other pneumonia examples were correctly classified. This study has flaws, most critically a lack of information about where in the disease process the COVID-19 cases were and the small data set size. More COVID-19 case images will enable a better answer to the question of how useful chest X-rays can be for diagnosing COVID-19 (so please send them).