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Interior Void Classification in Liquid Metal using Multi-Frequency Magnetic Induction Tomography with a Machine Learning Approach
  • Imamul Muttakin ,
  • Manuchehr Soleimani
Imamul Muttakin
University of Bath

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Manuchehr Soleimani
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Identification of gas bubble, void detection and porosity estimation are important factors in many liquid metal processes. In steel casting, the importance of flow condition and phase distribution in crucial parts, such as submerged entry nozzle (SEN) and mould raises the needs to observe the phenomena. Cross-section of flow shapes can be visualised using the magnetic induction tomography (MIT) technique. However, the inversion procedure in the image reconstruction has either limited resolution or complex computation degrading its real-time capability. Additionally, in some cases, the actual image may not be essential whereas the void fraction or porosity needs to be estimated. This work proposes an interior void classifier based on multi-frequency mutual induction measurements with eutectic alloy GaInSn as a cold liquid metal model contained in a 3D printed plastic miniature of an SEN. The sensors consist of eight coils arranged in a circle encapsulating the column, providing combinatorial detection on conductive surface and depth. The datasets are induced voltage collections of several non-metallic inclusions (NMI) patterns in liquid metal static test and used to train a machine learning model. The model architectures are a fully connected neural network (FCNN) for 1D; and a convolutional neural network (CNN) for 2D data. The classifier using 1D data has been trained to approximately 86% accuracy on this dataset. CNN classification using multi-dimensional data with more classes produces 96% of test accuracy. Refined with representative flow scenarios, the trained model could be deployed for an intelligent online control system of the liquid metal process.
15 Oct 2021Published in IEEE Sensors Journal volume 21 issue 20 on pages 23289-23296. 10.1109/JSEN.2021.3109629