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DeepLPC: A Deep Learning Approach to Augmented Kalman Filter-Based Single-Channel Speech Enhancement
  • Sujan Kumar Roy ,
  • Aaron Nicolson ,
  • Kuldip K. Paliwal
Sujan Kumar Roy
Griffith University

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Aaron Nicolson
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Kuldip K. Paliwal
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Current deep learning approaches to linear prediction coefficient (LPC) estimation for the augmented Kalman filter (AKF) produce bias estimates, due to the use of a whitening filter. This severely degrades the perceived quality and intelligibility of enhanced speech produced by the AKF. In this paper, we propose a deep learning framework that produces clean speech and noise LPC estimates with significantly less bias than previous methods, by avoiding the use of a whitening filter. The proposed framework, called DeepLPC, jointly estimates the clean speech and noise LPC power spectra. The estimated clean speech and noise LPC power spectra are passed through the inverse Fourier transform to form autocorrelation matrices, which are then solved by the Levinson-Durbin recursion to form the LPCs and prediction error variances of the speech and noise for the AKF. The performance of DeepLPC is evaluated on the NOIZEUS and DEMAND Voice Bank datasets using subjective AB listening tests, as well as seven different objective measures (CSIG, CBAK, COVL, PESQ, STOI, SegSNR, and SI-SDR). DeepLPC is compared to six existing deep learning-based methods. Compared to other deep learning approaches to clean speech LPC estimation, DeepLPC produces a lower spectral distortion (SD) level than existing methods, confirming that it exhibits less bias. DeepLPC also produced higher objective scores than any of the competing methods (with an improvement of 0.11 for CSIG, 0.15 for CBAK, 0.14 for COVL, 0.13 for PESQ, 2.66\% for STOI, 1.11 dB for SegSNR, and 1.05 dB for SI-SDR, over the next best method). The enhanced speech produced by DeepLPC was also the most preferred by listeners. By producing less biased clean speech and noise LPC estimates, DeepLPC enables the AKF to produce enhanced speech at a higher quality and intelligibility.