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Electrotactile feedback for hand interactions: A systematic review, meta-analysis, and future directions
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  • Panagiotis Kourtesis ,
  • Ferran Argelaguet ,
  • Sebastian Vizcay ,
  • Maud Marchal ,
  • Claudio Pacchierotti
Panagiotis Kourtesis
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Ferran Argelaguet
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Sebastian Vizcay
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Maud Marchal
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Claudio Pacchierotti
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Abstract

Haptic feedback is critical in a broad range of human-machine/computer-interaction applications. However, the high cost and low portability/wearability of haptic devices remains an unresolved issue, severely limiting the adoption of this otherwise promising technology. Electrotactile interfaces have the advantage of being more portable and wearable due to its reduced actuators’ size, as well as benefiting from lower power consumption and manufacturing cost. The usages of electrotactile feedback have been explored in human-computer interaction and human machine-interaction for facilitating hand-based interactions in applications such as prosthetics, virtual reality, robotic teleoperation, surface haptics, portable devices, and rehabilitation. This paper presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of electrotactile feedback systems for hand based interactions in the last decade. We categorize the different electrotactile systems according to their type of stimulation and implementation/application. We also present and discuss a quantitative congregation of the findings, so as to offer a high-level overview into the state-of-art and suggest future directions. Electrotactile feedback was successful in rendering and/or augmenting most tactile sensations, eliciting perceptual processes, and improving performance in many scenarios, especially in those where the wearability/portability of the system is important. However, knowledge gaps, technical drawbacks, and methodological limitations were detected, which should be addressed in future studies.
01 Jul 2022Published in IEEE Transactions on Haptics volume 15 issue 3 on pages 479-496. 10.1109/TOH.2022.3189866