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Millimeter Wave Power Transmission for Compact and Large-Area Wearable IoT Devices based on a Higher-Order Mode Wearable Antenna
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  • Mahmoud Wagih ,
  • Geoffrey S. Hilton ,
  • Alex S. Weddell ,
  • Steve Beeby
Mahmoud Wagih
University of Southampton, University of Southampton

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Geoffrey S. Hilton
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Alex S. Weddell
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Steve Beeby
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Owing to the shorter wavelength in the millimeter-wave (mmWave) spectrum, miniaturized antennas can receive power with a higher efficiency than UHF bands, promising sustainable mmWave-powered Internet of Things (IoT) devices. Nevertheless, the performance of a mmWave power receiver has not been compared, numerically or experimentally, to its sub-6 GHz counterpart. In this paper, the performance of mmWave-powered receivers is evaluated based on a novel wearable textile-based higher-order mode microstrip antenna, showing the benefits of wireless power transmission (WPT). Firstly, a broadband antenna is proposed maintaining a stable wearable measured bandwidth from 24.9 to 31.1 GHz, over three-fold improvement compared to a conventional patch. The proposed antenna has a measured 8.2 dBi co-polarized gain with the highest thickness-normalized efficiency of a wearable antenna. When evaluated for compact power receivers, the measured path gain shows that WPT at 26 GHz outperforms 2.4 GHz by 11 dB. A rectenna array based on the proposed antenna is then evaluated analytically showing the potential for up to 6.3x higher power reception compared to a UHF patch, based on the proposed antenna’s gain and an empirical path-loss model. Both use cases demonstrate that mmWave-powered rectennas are suitable for area-constrained and large-area wearable IoT applications.
01 Apr 2022Published in IEEE Internet of Things Journal volume 9 issue 7 on pages 5229-5239. 10.1109/JIOT.2021.3107594