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Exploring undergraduates' attitudes towards ChatGPT. Is AI resistance constraining the acceptance of chatbot technology?
  • +1
  • J. Roberto Sánchez-Reina,
  • Emily Theophilou,
  • Davinia Hernández-Leo,
  • Dimitri Ognibene
J. Roberto Sánchez-Reina
TIDE, ICT Department, Universitat Pompeu Fabra

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

Author Profile
Emily Theophilou
TIDE, ICT Department, Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Davinia Hernández-Leo
TIDE, ICT Department, Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Dimitri Ognibene
Department of Psychology, Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca


The advent of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has revolutionized multiple sectors including education. The popularization of tools such as ChatGPT has sparked the debate concerning the impact of AI on traditional education and the nature of learning. This paper explores undergraduate students' attitudes towards AI and ChatGPT acceptance. A descriptive cross-sectional study with 72 Public Relations students (M age = 19.2 years old) took place in Barcelona (Spain) during the first semester of 2023. The study implemented a mixed method approach with two validated questionnaires and an open text question to gather comprehensive insights. Findings reveal positive attitudes towards artificial intelligence and ChatGPT acceptance. The assessment of negative perceptions show concerns regarding artificial intelligence and the use of ChatGPT among participants. The correlational analysis of scales showed an intricate relationship between AI attitudes and ChatGPT acceptance while the qualitative analysis highlighted three major attitudes among students: openness, awareness, and alertness. The present study contributes to the ongoing discourse surrounding the use of ChatGPT in educational settings, emphasizing the importance of exploring students' attitudes and concerns. As artificial intelligence continues to permeate various aspects in our daily life, it becomes crucial to explore its impact on education, particularly in higher education. By understanding students' attitudes, both educators and institutions can enhance their proficiency in integrating artificial intelligence in a more efficient manner, ensuring a well-balanced approach that maximizes benefits while mitigating potential drawbacks of adopting AI technology.
21 Mar 2024Submitted to TechRxiv
29 Mar 2024Published in TechRxiv