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FPGA-based Distributed Union-Find Decoder for Surface Codes
  • +1
  • Namitha Liyanage,
  • Yue Wu,
  • Siona Tagare,
  • Lin Zhong
Namitha Liyanage
Yale University

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Yue Wu
Yale University
Siona Tagare
Yale University
Lin Zhong
Yale University


A fault-tolerant quantum computer must decode and correct errors faster than they appear to prevent exponential slowdown due to error correction. The Union-Find (UF) decoder is promising with an average time complexity slightly higher than O(d3). We report a distributed version of the UF decoder that exploits parallel computing resources for further speedup. Using an FPGA-based implementation, we empirically show that this distributed UF decoder has a sublinear average time complexity with regard to d, given O(d3) parallel computing resources. The decoding time per measurement round decreases as d increases, the first time for a quantum error decoder. The implementation employs a scalable architecture called Helios that organizes parallel computing resources into a hybrid tree-grid structure. Using a Xilinx VCU129 FPGA, we successfully implement d up to 21 with an average decoding time of 11.5 ns per measurement round under 0.1% phenomenological noise, and 23.7 ns for d = 17 under equivalent circuit-level noise. This performance is significantly faster than any existing decoder implementation. Furthermore, we show that Helios can optimize for resource efficiency by decoding d = 51 on a Xilinx VCU129 FPGA with an average latency of 544ns per measurement round.
15 May 2024Submitted to TechRxiv
20 May 2024Published in TechRxiv