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An Architecture for Experiments in Connected and Automated Vehicles
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  • Maximilian Kloock ,
  • Patrick Scheffe ,
  • Ole Greß ,
  • Bassam Alrifaee
Maximilian Kloock
RWTH Aachen University, RWTH Aachen University

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Patrick Scheffe
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Ole Greß
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Bassam Alrifaee
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Rapid prototyping of Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAV) is challenging because of the physical distribution of vehicles. Furthermore, experiments with CAV may be subject to external influences which prevent reproducibility. This article presents an architecture for the experimental testing of CAVs with a focus on decision-making. Our architecture for experiments of CAV is strictly modular and hierarchical, and therefore it supports an easy and rapid exchange of every single controller as well as of optimization libraries. Additionally, the architecture synchronizes the whole network of sensors, computation devices, and actuators. Thus, it achieves deterministic and reproducible results, even for time-variant network topologies. Using this architecture, we are able to include active and passive vehicles and vehicles with heterogeneous dynamics in the experiments. The architecture also allows for handling communication uncertainties, e.g., data packet drop and time delay. The resulting architecture supports performing different in-the-loop tests and experiments. We demonstrate the architecture in the Cyber-Physical Mobility Lab (CPM Lab) using 20 vehicles in 1:18 scale. The architecture can be applied to other domains.
2023Published in IEEE Open Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems volume 4 on pages 175-186. 10.1109/OJITS.2023.3250951