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Highly Efficient Three-Bit Digital Power Amplifier for OFDM Waveform Amplification
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  • Jiteng Ma ,
  • Gautam Jindal ,
  • Manish Nair ,
  • Tommaso Cappello ,
  • Gavin Watkins ,
  • Kevin Morris ,
  • Mark Beach
Jiteng Ma
University of Bristol, University of Bristol

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Gautam Jindal
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Manish Nair
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Tommaso Cappello
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Gavin Watkins
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Kevin Morris
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Mark Beach
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Abstract

In this work, we present a digital power amplifier (DPA) and a signal-optimized control technique suitable for the amplification of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). OFDM is a high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) signal that is naturally arising from high spectrum efficiency modulations. A 3-bit DPA is implemented with three power-scaled transistors which are turned on and off based on the signal amplitude, while phase modulation is restored using the RF input signal. The unavoidable non-linearities at the DPA output due to the PA switching are minimized by accounting for the OFDM signal probability density function (PDF). This PDF is a priori knowledge to design an optimal quantizer that minimizes distortion by distributing the DPA power levels where the signal amplitude is more similar to the original one. Back-off efficiency within 2^3=8 possible states is then optimized by implementing a load-modulating power combiner. Theory and an example design of the combiner network are provided and demonstrated for this DPA. The reported DPA prototype operates at 1.5 GHz with a 3-bit control and achieves a maximum power-added efficiency (PAE) of 64.3% and maintains a drain efficiency greater than 47% over the output power range from 36.6 to 45.2dBm (8.6dB range).
Jan 2023Published in IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques volume 71 issue 1 on pages 35-47. 10.1109/TMTT.2022.3194092