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A Survey on Chirp Spread Spectrum-based Waveform Design for IoT
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  • Ali Waqar Azim ,
  • Ahmad Bazzi ,
  • Raed Shubair ,
  • Marwa Chafii
Ali Waqar Azim
UET Taxila

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Ahmad Bazzi
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Raed Shubair
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Marwa Chafii
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Long Range (LoRa) is one of the most promising and widespread chirp spread spectrum (CSS)-based physical (PHY) layer technique for low-power wide-area networks (LPWANs). Using different spreading factors, LoRa can attain different spectral/energy efficiencies, and can target multitude of Internet-of-Thing (IoT) applications. However, one of the limiting factors for LoRa is the low bit rate. Little to no effort has been made in order to improve the achievable rate of LoRa, until recently, when a number of CSS-based PHY layer LoRa alternative are proposed for LPWANs. In this survey, for the first time, we present a comprehensive waveform design of these CSS-based schemes that have been proposed between 2019 to 2022. In total, fifteen alternatives to LoRa are compared. Other survey articles related to LoRa mostly tackle different issues, such as LoRa networking, LoRa deployment in massive IoT networks, and LoRa architectures, etc. This survey, on the other hand, comprehensively elucidates the waveform design of LoRa alternatives. The CSS schemes studied in this survey are divided into single chirp, multiple chirp, and index modulation based on the multiplexing pattern of the chirps. Complete transceiver architecture of these CSS schemes is studied, and performance is evaluated in terms of energy efficiency (EE), spectral efficiency (SE), bit-error rate (BER) performance in additive white Gaussian noise, BER in the presence of phase and frequency offsets. It has been observed that the EE, SE and robustness against the offsets is primarily linked to transmit symbol frame structure. The  public versions of  the MATLAB codes for the CSS schemes studied in this survey shall be provided to promote reproducible research.