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Quantum Cryptography a Real Threat to Classical Blockchain: Requirements and Challenges
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  • Wazir Zada Khan ,
  • Qurat-ul-Ain Arshad ,
  • Mudassar Raza ,
  • Muhammad Imran
Wazir Zada Khan
University of Wah

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Qurat-ul-Ain Arshad
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Mudassar Raza
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Muhammad Imran
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Abstract

Classical blockchain cryptographic primitives are susceptible to quantum computing technology due to its unprecedented growth because it has the potential to make current blockchain encryption techniques obsolete against quantum attacks. Shor algorithm can perform transactional hijacking and forge digital signatures to impersonate blockchain users. On the other hand, Grover algorithm can perform 51% attack and can accelerate brute force attack by detecting hash collisions to replace the blocks of a blockchain. With the advent of this threat, in attempt to mitigate the effects of quantum attacks on blockchain technology, the concept of post-quantum cryptography (PQC) or quantum resistant cryptography (QRC) has emerged. PQC involves cryptographic algorithms or cryptosystems that are robust against quantum attacks and are also applicable in blockchain for post quantum decentralization. In this article, we provide a brief overview of quantum threats to classical blockchain technology. We identify and discuss some important requirements for the implementation of PQC. Moreover, we also identify and explain notable unresolved challenges in implementing PQC algorithms. We also determine critical research questions for each identified challenge that are imperative to confer and requires discussion and interpretation by the researchers of this field.