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A Survey on STAR-RIS: Use Cases, Recent Advances, and Future Research Challenges
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  • Abdul Wahid ,
  • Manzoor Ahmed ,
  • Sayed Shariq Laique ,
  • Wali Ullah Khan ,
  • Asim Ihsan ,
  • Fang Xu ,
  • Symeon Chatzinotas ,
  • Zhu Han
Abdul Wahid
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Manzoor Ahmed
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Sayed Shariq Laique
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Wali Ullah Khan
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Asim Ihsan
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Symeon Chatzinotas
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The recent development of metasurfaces, which may enable several use cases by modifying the propagation environment, is anticipated to have a substantial effect on the performance of 6G wireless communications. Metasurface elements can produce essentially passive sub-wavelength scattering to enable a smart radio environment. STAR-RIS, which refers to reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) that can transmit and reflect concurrently (STAR), is gaining popularity. In contrast to the widely studied RIS, which can only reflect the wireless signal and serve users on the same side as the transmitter, the STAR-RIS can both reflect and refract (transmit), enabling 360-degree wireless coverage, thus serving users on both sides of the transmitter. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the STAR-RIS, with a focus on the most recent schemes for diverse use cases in 6G networks, resource allocation, and performance evaluation.
We begin by laying the foundation for RIS (passive, active, STAR-RIS), and then discuss the STAR-RIS protocols, advantages, and applications. In addition, we categorize the approaches within the domain of use scenarios, which includes increasing coverage, enhancing physical layer security (PLS), maximizing sum rate, improving energy efficiency (EE), and reducing interference. Next, we will discuss the various strategies for resource allocation and measures for performance evaluation. We aimed to elaborate, compare, and evaluate the literature in terms of setup, channel characteristics, methodology, and objectives. In conclusion, we examine the open research problems and potential future prospects in this field.