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A Review of Motor Brain-Computer Interfaces using Intracranial Electroencephalography based on Surface Electrodes and Depth Electrodes
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  • Xiaolong Wu ,
  • benjamin metcalfe ,
  • Shenghong He ,
  • Huiling Tan ,
  • Dingguo Zhang
Xiaolong Wu
University of Bath

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benjamin metcalfe
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Shenghong He
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Huiling Tan
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Dingguo Zhang
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Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide a communication interface between the brain and external devices and have the potential to restore communication and control in patients with neurological injury or disease. For the invasive BCIs, most studies recruited participants from hospitals requiring invasive device implantation. Three widely used clinical invasive devices that have the potential for BCIs applications include surface electrodes used in electrocorticography (ECoG) and depth electrodes used in Stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) and deep brain stimulation (DBS). This review focused on BCIs research using surface (ECoG) and depth electrodes (including SEEG, and DBS electrodes) for movement decoding on human subjects. Unlike previous reviews, the findings presented here are from the perspective of the decoding target or task. In detail, five tasks will be considered, consisting of the decoding of kinematic, kinetic, identification of actual or imagery movement of limbs, dexterous hand decoding, and movement intention decoding. The reviewed literature demonstrated a distributed motor-related network that spanned multiple brain regions. Comparison between surface and depth studies demonstrated that  richer information can be obtained using surface electrodes. In decoding, deep learning exhibited superior performance using raw signals than traditional algorithms. However, despite the promising achievement made by the open-loop BCIs, closed-loop BCIs with sensory feedback are still in their early stage, and the chronic implantation of both ECoG surface and depth electrodes has not been thoroughly evaluated.