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BFLMeta: Blockchain-Empowered Metaverse with Byzantine-Robust Federated Learning
  • Vu Truong ,
  • Long Bao Le
Vu Truong

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Long Bao Le
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The emerging metaverse is envisioned as a virtual mapping of the real world, thus it would inevitably employ numerous Machine Learning (ML) frameworks to analyze and process massive data for the virtual-physical synchronization process. As a distributed ML paradigm, Federated Learning (FL) can naturally take advantage of numerous IoT, wearable devices, and edge, cloud servers under the metaverse infrastructure to train ML models with privacy guarantee. However, the large-scale and decentralized nature of the metaverse can pose significant challenges to traditional FL schemes, where there is a centralized server aggregating the local models received from local devices. It is not only vulnerable to Single Point of Failure (SPoF), but also lacks incentive mechanisms encouraging metaverse users to contribute their resource and data.
In this paper, we propose BFLMeta, a blockchain-based FL scheme for the metaverse in which the aggregation process is performed in a decentralized manner, while the framework can estimate the non-IID degree of data to flexibly adjust blockchain committee size, thereby mitigating the impact of malicious aggregators. Security analysis shows that BFLMeta can resist SPoF, poisoning attack, privacy leakage, and sybil attack. Besides, our evaluation on computation, communication, and performance illustrates the efficiency of BFLMeta. Notably, BFLMeta can converge even with more than 50% poisoning nodes.