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Cellular Spectrum Occupancy Probability in Urban and Rural Scenarios at Various UAS Altitudes
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  • Amir Hossein Fahim Raouf ,
  • Sung Joon Maeng ,
  • Ismail Guvenc ,
  • Ozgur Ozdemir ,
  • Mihail Sichitiu
Amir Hossein Fahim Raouf
North Carolina State University

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Sung Joon Maeng
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Ismail Guvenc
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Ozgur Ozdemir
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Mihail Sichitiu
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The ever-growing demand for wireless connectivity, coupled with limited spectrum resources, has resulted in spectrum congestion and interference. This research investigates the probability of occupancy in common sub-6 GHz cellular network bands  based on measurements conducted in urban and rural environments. Specifically, we analyze the spectrum occupancy of various long-term evolution (LTE), 5th generation (5G) and Citizens Broadband Radio Service (CBRS) bands used in the United States, considering both uplink and downlink transmissions at altitudes up to 180 meters. Additionally, we explore the influence of altitude on the probability of spectrum occupancy in these bands.
Our findings reveal that the probability of occupancy is generally higher in the downlink compared to the uplink. Moreover, we observe that line-of-sight (LoS) signals play a critical role in higher altitudes. These results provide insights spectrum utilization in various cellular bands across different altitudes, with implications on  interference and spectrum coexistence between terrestrial networks and unmanned aerial systems (UASs) in the future.