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Electrical stimulation of regenerative peripheral nerve interfaces (RPNIs) induces referred sensations in people with upper limb loss
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  • Michael Gonzalez ,
  • Chinwendu Nwokeabia ,
  • Alex K. Vaskov ,
  • Philip Vu ,
  • Charles Lu ,
  • Parag G. Patil ,
  • Paul S. Cederna ,
  • Cynthia A. Chestek ,
  • Deanna Gates
Michael Gonzalez
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Chinwendu Nwokeabia
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Alex K. Vaskov
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Philip Vu
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Charles Lu
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Parag G. Patil
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Paul S. Cederna
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Cynthia A. Chestek
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Deanna Gates
University of Michigan

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In four participants with upper limb loss, we characterized the quality and location of sensation elicited through electrical stimulation of regenerative peripheral nerve interfaces (RPNIs) over time (up to 54 months post implantation of wires). We also measured sensory perception and discomfort thresholds, sensitivity to changes in stimulation amplitude, and ability to differentiate objects of different stiffness and sizes.