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A Benchmark of Integrated Magnetometers and Magnetic Gradiometers
  • Gael Close
Gael Close
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Abstract

This survey paper compiles and benchmarks the performance of integrated magnetic sensors, in terms of their noise and full-scale magnetic field. In total, we collected performance metrics of 31 sensors realized in various technologies. For each sensor, we derived a noise model to estimate the noise under the same conditions. We obtained a comprehensive benchmark with a focus on integrated devices. We also measured the noise spectrum of 11 of those sensors to confirm our noise model. Given that for many emerging applications, such as tactile, current, torque and biomagnetic sensing, the signal of interest is the field gradient to reject magnetic stray fields, we extended the benchmark to gradiometers. We developed a low-noise measurement setup and a low-field gradient (full scale: 10 μT/mm) generation setup to characterize magnetic gradiometers in this regime. The paper discusses the key sensor trade-off between precision and range, and summarizes the technology trends graphically on a trade-off curve, providing broad insight.
2023Published in IEEE Access volume 11 on pages 115635-115643. 10.1109/access.2023.3325035