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Quantum-Enabled Discrete Distribution Sampling for Post-Quantum Lattice-Based Cryptography
  • Utsav Banerjee
Utsav Banerjee
Indian Institute of Science

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Lattice-based cryptography is considered the most promising candidate for post-quantum public key cryptography such as key encapsulation and digital signature schemes. Accurate and efficient sampling of matrix / vector elements and polynomial coefficients from specified discrete probability distributions is crucial to the security and efficiency of lattice-based cryptography protocols. In this work, a design methodology is proposed to implement these sampling operations using currently available quantum computing hardware. Quantum circuits for sampling from uniform, trinary, binomial and discrete Gaussian distributions are presented. Implementation results obtained from simulation as well as measured from real cloud-based quantum hardware are also presented and analyzed. Although the proposed circuits require only few qubits, they implement practical distribution parameters used by various lattice-based protocols. This clearly demonstrates the immediate relevance of such quantum circuits in the context of currently available small-scale quantum computers, and they have the potential to enhance post-quantum cryptography implementations on quantum-enabled cloud environments.