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Secure RIS-Assisted Hybrid Beamforming Design with Low-Resolution Phase Shifters
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  • Sonia Pala ,
  • Omid Taghizadeh ,
  • Mayur Katwe ,
  • Keshav Singh ,
  • Chih-Peng Li ,
  • Anke Schmeink
Sonia Pala
National Sun Yat-sen University

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Omid Taghizadeh
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Mayur Katwe
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Keshav Singh
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Chih-Peng Li
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Anke Schmeink
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Abstract

The low-resolution reality of the hardware elements associated with massive mmWave antenna or reflector arrays is associated with the performance degradation of the wireless link when it is not properly controlled. In particular, the unintended angular radiations of the transmission or reflection arrays (e.g., transmission in non-intended directions) would invalidate the usual assumptions of information secrecy, even with perfect channel state information (CSI) knowledge at the transmitter, in the presence of low-resolution hardware. In this paper, we study a hybrid beamforming design for reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS)- assisted multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) downlink (DL) communication, from the prospect of information secrecy maximization, wherein the array element phase rotations belong to the known discrete space. To solve the NP-hardness and non-convexity of the formulated problem, we propose an iterative procedure by re-structuring the obtained discrete-domain problem into a tractable form which solves the problem numerically and guarantees the convergence to a stationary point. Further, we confirm the accuracy of the proposed optimization algorithm by an exhaustive search method based on graphical simulations. The minimal performance disparity that exists between the proposed algorithm and the considered digital beamforming (DBF) scheme as the upper bound validates the hybrid beamforming design. Moreover, the proposed work highlights the superiority of discrete-aware design over various existing baseline schemes, demonstrating the significant gains attainable by adopting discrete space design from the outset. Additionally, the proposed solution discusses the improvement in secrecy system performance by deploying RIS with an increased number of reflecting elements and thereby restricting the effect of eavesdroppers on secure communication.