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Quantum Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning as an Emerging AI Technology: A Survey and Future Directions
  • Jun Zhao ,
  • Wenhan Yu
Jun Zhao
Nanyang Technological University

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Wenhan Yu
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This paper presents a comprehensive survey of Quantum Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning (QMARL), a nascent field at the intersection of quantum computing and multi-agent systems. The survey begins by introducing the fundamentals of quantum computing, highlighting its potential to revolutionize computational capabilities. We then delve into the principles of multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL), examining how quantum computing can enhance learning efficiency and decision-making processes in complex environments. The core of the survey focuses on the current state of QMARL, reviewing existing literature, methodologies, and case studies that demonstrate the integration of quantum algorithms with MARL frameworks. The paper also addresses the unique challenges and opportunities presented by quantum technologies in multi-agent systems, such as quantum entanglement and superposition, and their implications for agent coordination and learning dynamics. Additionally, the survey explores the practical applications of QMARL in various domains, including cybersecurity, finance, and robotics, underscoring its transformative potential. The paper concludes by identifying key research gaps and proposing future directions for the development of QMARL. This includes the need for scalable quantum algorithms, the exploration of quantum-resistant strategies in adversarial settings, and the integration of quantum principles in agent communication and collaboration. Overall, this survey serves as a foundational guide for researchers and practitioners interested in the emerging field of QMARL, offering insights into its current achievements and future possibilities.