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Thermomechanical Modeling and Stress Analysis of Copper Inverse Opals (CIO) Structure for Capillary-Fed Boiling
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  • Shuhang Lyu ,
  • Qianying Wu ,
  • Zheng Gong ,
  • Keyu Wang ,
  • Kenneth Goodson ,
  • Tiwei Wei
Shuhang Lyu
Purdue University, Purdue University

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Qianying Wu
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Zheng Gong
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Keyu Wang
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Kenneth Goodson
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Tiwei Wei
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Recently, a microporous copper inverse opals (CIO) wick material has been utilized in the thermal management of microelectronics as it significantly enhances heat transfer performance with capillary-fed boiling, providing a high critical heat flux of up to ~1100 W/cm2. In this study, we numerically investigate the thermomechanical reliability of the CIO structures with a finite element method. The mechanical stress of ordered and graded CIO structures is simulated under the conditions of external shear load and boiling-induced thermal expansion. Different geometric parameters, including pore diameter and the neck-to-pore ratio of ordered CIO, and overlap distance and pore gradient of graded CIO, have been parametrically studied. Based on the effective mechanical properties extracted with the representative volume element (RVE) method, the mechanical response of the porous structure is being further understood. The von Mises yield criterion is applied to determine the fracture of the copper structure. The reliability of ordered CIOs is assessed by evaluating the maximum von Mises stress and shear stress under the shear load, showing lower stresses with larger pore diameters and smaller pore-to-neck ratios. In contrast, a decrease in thermal stresses is found to appear in ordered CIOs with small pores and large neck-to-pore ratios under boiling conditions. The thermomechanical reliability of graded CIOs is analyzed with different pore gradients and overlap distances. The stress distribution of graded CIO structures indicates maximum stresses near the Si-Cu interface in the shear test, while the interfaces between layers of CIOs are more vulnerable under boiling conditions. In terms of the pore gradient effects, the graded CIO with a larger gradient tends to be more fragile due to the larger stresses at the interfaces between pore diameters induced by the increased differences in pore diameter.