Network slicing is a crucial enabler and a trend for the Next Generation Mobile Network (NGMN) and various other new systems like the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) and Industrial IoT (IIoT). Orchestration and machine learning are key elements with a crucial role in the network-slicing processes since the NS process needs to orchestrate resources and functionalities, and machine learning can potentially optimize the orchestration process. However, existing network-slicing architectures lack the ability to define intelligent approaches to orchestrate features and resources in the slicing process. This paper discusses machine learning-based orchestration of features and capabilities in network slicing architectures. Initially, the slice resource orchestration and allocation in the slicing planning, configuration, commissioning, and operation phases are analyzed. In sequence, we highlight the need for optimized architectural feature orchestration and recommend using ML-embed agents, federated learning intrinsic mechanisms for knowledge acquisition, and a data-driven approach embedded in the network slicing architecture. We further develop an architectural features orchestration case embedded in the SFI2 network slicing architecture. An attack prevention security mechanism is developed for the SFI2 architecture using distributed embedded and cooperating ML agents. The case presented illustrates the architectural feature’s orchestration process and benefits, highlighting its importance for the network slicing process.

Rafael F. Reale

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Reinforcement learning (RL) is currently used in various real-life applications. RL-based solutions have the potential to generically address problems, including the ones that are difficult to solve with heuristics and meta-heuristics and, in addition, the set of problems and issues where some intelligent or cognitive approach is required. However, reinforcement learning agents require a not straightforward design and have important design issues. RL agent design issues include the target problem modeling, state-space explosion, the training process, and agent efficiency. Research currently addresses these issues aiming to foster RL dissemination. A BAM model, in summary, allocates and shares resources with users. There are three basic BAM models and several hybrids that differ in how they allocate and share resources among users. This paper addresses the issue of an RL agent design and efficiency. The RL agent’s objective is to allocate and share resources among users. The paper investigates how a BAM model can contribute to the RL agent design and efficiency. The AllocTC-Sharing (ATCS) model is analytically described and simulated to evaluate how it mimics the RL agent operation and how the ATCS can offload computational tasks from the RL agent. The essential argument researched is whether algorithms integrated with the RL agent design and operation have the potential to facilitate agent design and optimize its execution. The ATCS analytical model and simulation presented demonstrate that a BAM model offloads agent tasks and assists the agent’s design and optimization.