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Enhanced optical four-wave-mixing in integrated ring resonators with graphene oxide films
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  • David Moss ,
  • Jiayang Wu ,
  • xingyuan xu ,
  • Yunyi Yang ,
  • linnan jia ,
  • Yuning Zhang ,
  • Sai Tak Chu ,
  • Brent E. Little ,
  • Roberto Morandotti ,
  • Baohua Jiao
David Moss
Swinburne University

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Jiayang Wu
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xingyuan xu
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Yunyi Yang
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linnan jia
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Yuning Zhang
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Sai Tak Chu
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Brent E. Little
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Roberto Morandotti
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Baohua Jiao
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Layered two-dimensional (2D) graphene oxide (GO) films are integrated with micro-ring resonators (MRRs) to experimentally demonstrate enhanced nonlinear optics in the form of four-wave mixing (FWM). Both uniformly coated and patterned GO films are integrated on CMOS-compatible doped silica MRRs using a large-area, transfer-free, layer-by-layer GO coating method together with photolithography and lift-off processes, yielding precise control of the film thickness, placement, and coating length. The high Kerr nonlinearity and low loss of the GO films combined with the strong light-matter interaction within the MRRs results in a significant improvement in the FWM efficiency in the hybrid MRRs. Detailed FWM measurements are performed at different pump powers and resonant wavelengths for the uniformly coated MRRs with 1−5 layers of GO as well as the patterned devices with 10−50 layers of GO. The experimental results show good agreement with theory, achieving up to ~7.6-dB enhancement in the FWM conversion efficiency (CE) for an MRR uniformly coated with 1 layer of GO and ~10.3-dB for a patterned device with 50 layers of GO. By fitting the measured CE as a function of pump power for devices with different numbers of GO layers, we also extract the dependence of GO’s third-order nonlinearity on layer number and pump power, revealing interesting physical insights about the evolution of the layered GO films from 2D monolayers to quasi bulk-like behavior. These results confirm the high nonlinear optical performance of integrated photonic resonators incorporated with 2D layered GO films.